SUPPLEMENTS, VITAMINS: "Save your money! »

Vegetables, Carrot, Food, Healthy, Diet
SUPPLEMENTS, VITAMINS: "Save your money! »

In rich countries, about one in two people take at least one vitamin or dietary / nutritional supplement per day. "Save your money! ", recommend these researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine who are evaluating the effectiveness of a large number of vitamins and dietary supplements for heart health and healthy longevity. This massive meta-analysis of the results of 277 clinical trials involving 24 different interventions reveals the absence of evidence of efficacy of almost all supplements, including vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, on healthy longevity or protection against heart disease.

This is not only a negative finding, but most supplements do not appear to have any harmful effects either. The analysis finally shows that only a low-salt diet, omega-3 fatty acid supplements and, eventually, folic acid supplements can have beneficial health effects. Finally, the researchers also found that supplements combining calcium and vitamin D may actually be associated with a slightly increased risk of stroke.
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Supplements and vitamins are not a panacea

Headache, Pain, Pills, Medication

Dietary supplements are not the silver bullet," says the study's lead author, Dr. Erin D. Michos, Assistant Director of Preventive Cardiology at the Ciccarone Centre and Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. "People should focus on a heart-healthy diet, as the data show that the majority of healthy adults do not need to take supplements.

This analysis of data from 277 randomized clinical trials evaluating 16 combinations of vitamins or other supplements and 8 diets, involving a total of 992,129 participants, evaluated their outcomes in terms of mortality or heart disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke and heart attack.

Supplements examined included antioxidants, β-carotene, vitamin B, multivitamins, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B3 / niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E alone, calcium alone, vitamin D and calcium, folic acid, iron and omega-3 fatty acids.

The diets studied included the Mediterranean diet, the low saturated fat diet (less fat from meat and dairy products), a modified dietary fat intake (less saturated fat or replacing part of the caloric intake with more unsaturated fat or carbohydrate), in healthy people with high blood pressure, an increase in the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (nuts, seeds and vegetable oils) and the improved omega-6 fatty acid diet (nuts, seeds and vegetable oils). Each intervention was also classified according to the strength of the evidence.

Absence of impact for the majority of supplements: the majority of supplements, including multivitamins, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E alone, calcium alone and iron, are not associated with an increased or decreased risk of death or heart health.

In 3 studies involving 3,518 participants who followed a low-salt diet in people with normal blood pressure, 79 participants died, suggesting a 10% decrease in the risk of death with this diet, a moderate associated impact.

In 5 studies involving 3,680 hypertensive participants on a low-salt diet, the risk of death from heart disease appears to have been reduced by 33%, with 674 deaths from heart disease during the periods studied. This intervention is therefore classified as moderate impact.

In 41 studies involving 134,034 participants taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements, 10,707 people suffered heart events including heart attack or stroke. Overall, these studies suggest an 8% reduction in the risk of heart attack and a 7% reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease, with the use of omega-3 supplements. This intervention is classified as low impact.

In 25 studies involving 25,580 healthy participants, data show that folic acid is associated with a 20% reduction in the risk of stroke. This intervention is classified as low impact. In addition, studies suggesting the greatest impact of folic acid supplementation on reducing the risk of stroke have been conducted in China, where cereals are not fortified with folic acid. This protective effect may not be observed in countries where sufficient folic acid is consumed through food.

In 20 studies involving 42,072 participants, the combination of calcium + vitamin D appears to be associated with a 17% increased risk of stroke. Evidence of this risk is classified as moderate.

The message is simple, the researchers conclude. Although some interventions have an impact on mortality and cardiovascular health, the vast majority of these supplements or diets have no measurable effect on healthy survival or risk of cardiovascular disease.

Any supplementation must be based on a prescription.

Food Trends in vogue

A healthy diet meets the body's needs and provides it with energy and well-being. But which dietary choices are best for our organization? Dr. Imane Slaoui helps us to see things more clearly.

Vegan, what is it?

Vegetable Skewer, Vegetables

Vaganism is not only a particular way of eating but also a philosophy of life that excludes everything that comes from animals such as leather for example. Unlike vegetarians, vegans will not consume dairy products, eggs or even honey. Their diet includes fruits, vegetables, seeds and legumes. No food of animal origin is tolerated.

What are the risks involved?

A poorly managed vegan diet can have dramatic health consequences. Indeed, several serious deficiencies can appear, due to the eviction of certain food groups. This is the case, for example, of vitamin B12, which is found exclusively in meat, fish and dairy products. Supplementation is necessary because the vitamin B12 found in spirulina is inactive and therefore has no value in this case.

Only a healthy adult can qualify for this type of diet. However, he must be accompanied by a nutrition professional in order not to cause serious food deficiencies that could harm his health.

What are the benefits of this diet?

This diet provides a significant amount of fibre, antioxidants and vitamins. It is free of cholesterol and saturated animal fats. This diet can be beneficial if properly managed (monitored by a nutrition professional and compensated for any deficiencies by dietary supplements). Some studies have shown that vegans suffer less from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.

Gluten free

Wheat, Gluten, Allergy, Food, Allergen

Gluten is a protein found mainly in many cereals such as wheat, which is a significant part of our diet. The gluten-free trend has appeared in recent years and many people will follow this diet without really needing it and without understanding its consequences.

What is a gluten-free diet?

A gluten-free diet is a system that excludes all cereals containing gluten, such as wheat, rye, barley and, to a lesser extent, oats. Gluten also exists in some processed products, such as chewing gum and dried figs, which are often passed through wheat flour.

In which case should I follow a gluten-free diet?

People who are gluten intolerant (celiac disease) or have an allergy to wheat protein are required to follow a gluten-free diet.

A gluten-free diet for people who are not required to do so could lead to gluten intolerance in the long term when gluten is reintroduced.

In addition, gluten-free flours and processed gluten-free products (pasta and biscuits) most often have a very high glycemic index (rice and corn flour), leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Keto or ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is based on a very significant reduction in carbohydrate intake and a high fat intake. In other words, we eat a lot of fat, and very little or no sugar at all. This diet was developed in the 1920s to treat children with epilepsy. It has become fashionable in recent years because it causes significant weight loss.
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How does the diet keto help you lose weight?

Our body mainly gets the energy it needs every day from fast carbohydrates like sugar and slow carbohydrates like flour. In the ketogenic diet, the sugar intake is considerably reduced, the body initially draws on the sugar reserves contained in the body in the form of glycogen in the muscle and liver. Once the glycogen stock is depleted, the body will draw its energy from the fat and it is at this point that the body enters ketosis. The degradation of lipids will lead to the formation of ketones in the liver and the appearance of specific breath.

The dangers of the Keto diet

Once the body enters ketosis, symptoms called ketogenic flu (severe fatigue, slight depression and severe loss of appetite) will appear. This state can be prolonged in time and make daily life difficult.

Excessive fat intake can lead to cardiovascular disorders if the person consumes too much saturated and trans fatty acids and not enough omega 3. In addition, an increased risk of renal lithiasis was observed during this diet.

In addition, since this diet is not sustainable in the long term due to the multitude of restrictions it imposes, as soon as normal feeding is resumed, we observe a very significant weight gain that may exceed the person's initial weight.

If you wish to follow this diet, limit yourself to a few weeks, respect the balance between the different fatty acids, gradually reintroduce prohibited foods to limit weight gain, and follow-up by a health professional is strongly recommended.

Organic, for or against?

Watermelon, Summer

In principle, organic products do not contain pesticides. It has been proven that people exposed to pesticides, such as farmers, develop more cancers and Parkinson's disease than the normal population.

In addition, organic fruits and vegetables respect seasonality and are harvested when ripe. They therefore do not undergo any conservation or maturation process that may alter their taste or reduce their nutritional value. In addition, some studies have highlighted the fact that organic foods contain less heavy metals than those from conventional agriculture.

Meat, dairy products, eggs and organic fish come from farms that do not use industrial animal feed or growth hormones. However, and according to an analysis that examined under the microscope 17 clinical studies on the health effects of organic and 227 studies on the nutritional composition and contaminants present in organic and non-organic foods, it was found that organic foods are no more nutritious than foods from conventional agriculture. On the other hand, organic food reduces pesticide exposure by 30% and also reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance, as antibiotics are used in non-organic livestock farming.
My advice: try to eat organic herbs because they are very difficult to clean and often full of pesticides (mint, parsley...) and wash your fruits and vegetables well before consumption by putting a little white vinegar in the washing water. υ

Parents who want their children to follow a vegan diet are encouraged to consult their doctor first.

  • Putting infants on a herbal diet can risk depriving them of essential vitamins
  • The British Nutrition Foundation has updated the Toddler Nutrition Guidelines
  • Toddlers should aim to eat two servings of protein foods to get iron and zinc
  •        Veganism is on the rise among middle-class families who claim it is a way to save the planet and improve their health at the same time.
  •         But nutritionists have now warned parents to think twice before subjecting their children to a trendy vegan diet.
  •         The British Nutrition Foundation has stated that limiting toddlers to a plant-based diet may deprive them of essential vitamins and minerals.
  •         Yesterday, they published updated nutritional recommendations for toddlers, in a context of a growing vegan trend in Britain, which has seen companies launch vegan baby foods.
  •         The BNF called for caution for parents who are considering placing their child on a vegan diet and said they should first consult a doctor for vitamins and dietary supplements (picture in stock)
  •         The BNF called for caution for parents considering placing their child on a vegan diet and said they should first consult a doctor for vitamins and dietary supplements.
  •         The guidelines, developed by the best nutrition scientists, stated that toddlers should aim to eat two or three servings of protein foods in order to get enough iron and zinc.
  •        This can be difficult as a vegan diet, although the BNF has recognized that a "well planned" vegan diet could be healthy for young children.
  •         The BNF advisory - called Guide 5532-A-Day - recommends that children aged four to four years eat five daily servings of starchy foods, such as bread or pasta, five fruits and vegetables, three dairy products and two proteins, such as eggs, chickpeas or fish, up to three if they are vegetarian or vegan.
  •        The number of vegans in Britain - who cut meat, eggs, dairy products and animal products, such as honey - increased fourfold between 2014 and 2018 - 600,000, about 1.2% of the population (image in stock)
  •       Sara Stanner, Scientific Director of the BNF, said:"Even when parents know which foods are part of a healthy diet, it is sometimes difficult to know what size portion is right for young children and how often they should eat the different food groups every day.
  •         She added that sweet treats such as "cookies, chocolate and sweets should not be part of children's daily diet".
  •         The guide also indicates that fruit juices can provide some important vitamins, but are rich in sugar and acids, which can damage young teeth. He advised to eat them only at mealtimes and to dilute them.
  •        The number of vegetarians in Britain - who cut meat, eggs, dairy products and animal products such as honey - quadrupled between 2014 and 2018, out of 600,000, or about 1.2% of the population.

Diet: Snacking without getting fat, it's possible!

Are you on a diet? Discover our list of healthy snacks that will allow you to snack while keeping the line.

As you all know, to stay slim, you must avoid snacking. However, some snacks can serve as appetite suppressants and help you keep your figure. They calm the feeling of hunger and prevent you from throwing yourself at the food at the next meal. So if your body really needs to eat, don't hesitate to eat these foods.

Dried fruits

Mason Jars, Dehydrated, Fruit, Oranges

First of all, know that when we talk about dried fruits, we are talking about both nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds...) and fresh fruits that have been dried (prunes, grapes, cranberries...) Rich in fibre, minerals and vitamins, they are perfect for satisfying yourself and giving you energy.

Hard-boiled eggs

Eggs, Brewed, On, Hard-Boiled, Cool, In

In addition to being very low in calories (about 90 calluses per egg), eggs are one of the most complete foods: they are rich in protein (and therefore rich in essential amino acids), vitamins A, D, E, K, B2 and N12, minerals, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. It is also known to be what is called an appetite suppressant food. A real slimming ally!

White ham

Bread, Brown, Bun, Calories, Close-Up

Although delicatessen is on the list of banned foods in case of diet, white ham is doing well. Its high protein concentration makes it a good slimming ally. Proteins give and prolong the satiety effect while avoiding the feeling of fatigue. A slice contains only 120 calories, which is equivalent to only 2% fat.
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Dairy products

Yogurt, Dairy, Refrigerator

Some dairy products do not make you fat, and they are also good for you! Eating dairy products as part of a diet is possible, the key is to choose them carefully. Here are 7 dairy products that won't make you fat: ricotta cheese (170 calories per 100 g), soy milk (50 calories per 100 g), plain yogurt (65 calories per 100 g) and Swiss petit, which consists of 18 calories per 60 g pot.


Apple, Red, Fruit, Fruits, Decoration

If it were only a slimming fruit to be retained, it would surely be her! The apple is a low-calorie fruit. Rich in water, a medium-sized apple provides between 73 and 80 kcal. A very light, practical snack that can be taken anywhere!


Berries, Muesli, Blackberries, Bowl
Whole grains promote good transit and are low in calories. Avoid cereal cookies and cereal bars, which are high in sugar. Prefer oatmeal. This cereal is only 68 kcal per 100 g. Once swallowed, it swells in the stomach and the feeling of satiety is only longer.

Dark chocolate

Chocolate, Dark Chocolate, Tablet, Cocoa

Dark chocolate with more than 70% cocoa is good for your health because it contains very little sugar. It contains a lot of fibre and magnesium and is one of the richest sources of antioxidants. As for dark chocolate containing 100% cocoa, it acts as a real appetite suppressant. Its taste and saturation provoke a feeling of satiety, unlike milk chocolate, which often leads to excessive snacking.


Bananas, Fruit, Food, Fresh, Mature

It is better to eat a banana as a snack than a treat found in vending machines. Contrary to what one might think, bananas are not a fruit that "makes you grow". On the contrary, it is very rich in nutrients (magnesium/potassium), good sugars (those that do not impact your weight) and has the advantage of reducing hunger.
  • Johns Hopkins University
  • The British Nutrition Foundation